Today we will be looking at some Essential concepts of networking before we going to talk about hacking and security.

Now, let us begin to understand some of the basic concepts that are essential to laying the groundwork for our journey of learning of understanding of networking. Before actually jumping into the hands-on approach, it is highly necessary for one to have a thorough understanding of the basics of the computer network and their working model. In today’s lesson, you will find a brief description of various concepts and terminologies related to computer networks, encryption, and security.

COMPUTER NETWORK
A computer Network is a group of two or more computers linked together so that communication between individual computers is made possible. Some of the common types of computer network include:

Local Area Network (LAN)
This is a type of computer network where interconnected computers are situated very close to each other say for example, inside the same building.

Wide Area Network (WAN)
This is a type of computer network where interconnected computers are separated by a large distance (a few km to few hundreds of km) and are connected using telephone lines or radio waves.

Internet
The Internet is the largest network which interconnects various LANs and WANs. It is a global system of various interconnected computer networks belonging to government or private organizations.

NETWORK HOST
A Network host (or simply referred to as a host) can be any computer or network device connected to the computer network. This computer can be a terminal or a web server offering services to its clients.

NETWORK PROTOCOL
A network protocol (or just referred to as a protocol) is a set of rules and conventions that are necessary for the communication between two network devices. For example, two computers on a network can communicate only if they agree to follow the protocols.
The following are some of the most widely referred network protocols.

Internet Protocol (IP Address)
An Internet protocol address (Ip address) is a unique number assigned to each computer or device (such as the printer) so that each of them can be uniquely identified on the network

Types of IP Address:

  • Private IP Address: A Private IP address is the one that is assigned to a computer on the
    Local Area Network (LAN). A typical example of a private IP address would be something like:
    192.168.0.2
  • Public IP Address: A public IP address is the one that is assigned to a computer
    connected to the Internet. An example public IP address would be something like:
    59.93.115.125
  • In most cases, a computer gets connected to the ISP network using a private IP. Once a
    the computer is on the ISP network it will be assigned a public IP address using which the communication with the Internet is made possible

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